Estimating the viscosity of volcanic melts from the vibrational properties of their parental glasses

The numerical modelling of magma transport and volcanic eruptions requires accurate knowledge of the viscosity of magmatic liquids as a function of temperature and melt composition. However, there is growing evidence that volcanic melts can be prone to nanoscale modification and crystallization before and during viscosity measurements. This challenges the possibility of being able to …

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Proteinlike dynamical transition of hydrated polymer chains

Combining elastic incoherent neutron scattering experiments at different resolutions with molecular dynamics simulations, we report the observation of a proteinlike dynamical transition in linear chains of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide). We identify the onset of the transition at a temperature Td of about 225 K. Due to a global fit procedure, we find quantitative agreement between measured and …

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Thermal annealing and phase transformation of serpentine-like garnierite

This study is focused on the vibrational and microstructural aspects of the thermally induced transformation of serpentine-like garnierite into quartz, forsterite, and enstatite occurring at about 620 °C. Powder specimens of garnierite were annealed in static air between room temperature and 1000 °C. The kinetic of the transformation was investigated by means of thermogravimetric and …

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Two-Component Dynamics and the Liquidlike to Gaslike Crossover in Supercritical Water

Molecular-scale dynamics in sub-to supercritical water is studied with inelastic X-ray scattering and molecular dynamics simulations. The obtained longitudinal current correlation spectra can be decomposed into two main components: A low-frequency (LF), gaslike component and a high-frequency (HF) component arising from the O-O stretching mode between hydrogen-bonded molecules, reminiscent of the longitudinal acoustic mode in …

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Andalo special Issue on Complex systems

XV International Workshop on Complex systems Andalo (Trento, Italy) – 17-20 March 2019 Philosophical Magazine, Volume 100, Issue 20 (2020) Contents Foreword Giacomo Baldi, Aldo Fontana, Giulio Monaco & Marco Zanatta Page: 2543 Network dilution and asymmetry in an efficient brain Marco Leonetti, Viola Folli, Edoardo Milanetti, Giancarlo Ruocco & Giorgio Gosti Pages: 2544-2555 Mechanistic …

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Terahertz collective dynamics of DNA as affected by hydration and counterions

Local and propagating vibrations occurring in DNA in the terahertz domain are essential for processes at the basis of cellular metabolism. Here we report the results of a study on the B-DNA terahertz dynamics where we combined high-resolution inelastic x-ray experiments and incoherent inelastic neutron scattering. By using two different high-hydration conditions we could study …

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Atomic scale investigation of the volume phase transition in concentrated PNIPAM microgels

Combining elastic incoherent neutron scattering and differential scanning calorimetry, we investigate the occurrence of the volume phase transition (VPT) in very concentrated poly-(N-isopropyl-acrylamide) (PNIPAM) microgel suspensions, from a polymer weight fraction of 30 wt. % up to dry conditions. Although samples are arrested at the macroscopic scale, atomic degrees of freedom are equilibrated and can …

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Microscopic pathways for stress relaxation in repulsive colloidal glasses

Residual stresses are well-known companions of all glassy materials. They affect and, in many cases, even strongly modify important material properties like the mechanical response and the optical transparency. The mechanisms through which stresses affect such properties are, in many cases, still under study, and their full understanding can pave the way to a full …

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The instrument suite of the European Spallation Source

An overview is provided of the 15 neutron beam instruments making up the initial instrument suite of the European Spallation Source (ESS), and being made available to the neutron user community. The ESS neutron source consists of a high-power accelerator and target station, providing a unique long-pulse time structure of slow neutrons. The design considerations …

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